Welcome to the Crew Endurance documents and resources library!
Learn more about the impact of healthy sleep patterns in the following resources.
Books and Reports
- The Crew Endurance Handbook: A Guide to Applying Circadian-Based Watchbills is being provided to commanders and their staff to share some of the valuable lessons learned through scientific investigation and trial and error by other Naval commanders. It gives examples of some past watchbills that have been used effectively.
- RAND Corporation Sleep in the Military: Promoting Healthy Sleep Among U.S. Servicemembers is a 2015 publication devoted to addressing sleep issues in military. You can download a free copy of the report on this website.
- This book chapter provides a brief overview of sleep in US military organizations. The Role of Sleep in the Military: Implications for Training and Operational Effectiveness (pdf) Chapter by Miller, N.L., Matsangas, P., and Kenney, A. in J. Laurence and M. D. Matthews (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Military Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
- This February 2016 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults — United States, 2014, discusses the public health implications of short sleep duration (< 7hr/night).
- The National Sleep Foundation is a nonprofit organization in the USA whose stated objectives are to improve public health and safety by achieving understanding of sleep and sleep disorders, and to support sleep-related education, research, and advocacy.
- The Centers for Disease Control's website has training for emergency responders to reduce the risks associated with long work hours.
- Here is more information from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) discussing how to cope with shiftwork.
- The website for the Naval Center for Operational Stress Control is a great resource for managing stress and fatigue levels.
- The Naval Safety Center offers some great resources on sleep and safety. They have a large number of resources including videos and articles.
- The DOD Human Performance Resource Center website has great resources on Total Force Fitness. One of their links is the Performance Triad initiative started by the Department of Defense and in trial phase at various military installations.
- The Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center website has some valuable resources for managing sleep and fatigue.
This video explains "How sleep loss affects your heart"
Here are some articles that address the issues of sleep in the military.
- This article "Fatigue and Training Gaps Spell Disaster at Sea, Sailors Warn" appeared in the New York Times on 27 August 2017 following the second of two deadly ship collisons.
- This July 2017 article in the United States Naval Institute Proceedings Magazine by Machine Mate Nuclear Chief Jay Holley, USN, gives a great perspective on how important it is to give Sailors the opportunity to sleep: https://www.usni.org/magazines/proceedings/2017-07/let-our-sailors-sleep.
- This June 2016 article from the Naval Postgraduate School describes recent Crew Endurance Team efforts: https://my.nps.edu/-/navy-s-use-of-sleep-optimized-watchbill-continues-to-rise
- Cordle, J. and Shattuck, N.L.(2013). "A Sea Change in Standing Watch", United States Naval Institute Proceedings, January 2013:139 (1): 34-39. This article won the Surface Navy Association Literary Award for 2013. The SNA Literary Award recognizes the best professional article in any publication addressing Surface Navy or surface warfare issues.
- Miller, N.L., Shattuck, L.G., and Matsangas, P. (2010). "Longitudinal study of sleep patterns of United States Military Academy cadets", SLEEP: 33(12):1623-1631, 2010.
- Miller, N.L. and Firehammer, R. (2007). "Avoiding a Second Hollow Force: The Case for Including Crew Endurance Factors in the Afloat Staffing Policies of the U.S. Navy", Naval Engineers Journal, Vol 119:1 pp 83-96, 2007. This paper won the 'Jimmie' Hamilton Award for Best Paper of 2007 from The American Society of Naval Engineers.
- This article (pdf) is titled: "How to Trick Mother Nature into Letting You Fly Around or Stay Up All Night" by Revell and Eastman (2005).
Sleep in the Media
2017 Nobel Prize for Medicine:
- The 2017 Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded to 3 scientists for their work in the discovery of the mechanism of circadian rhythms in all organisms.
- This 24 Sept 2017 article is entitled "The shorter your sleep, the shorter your life: the new sleep science"
- This article in the Reuters News Service addresses how Eating in synch with your body clock may help curb fat gain!
The New York Times:
- New Article New York Times editor Tim Herrera address sleep in this fascinating article entitled: The Simplest Way to Drastically Improve Your Life: More Sleep. Also, take the online quiz to find out what kind of sleeper you are.
This TIME Magazine February 2017 overview of the effects of sleep on health and aging provides a snapshot of the latest findings on sleep. http://time.com/4672988/the-sleep-cure-fountain-of-youth/
CNN Dr Sanjay Gupta:
This CNN special report on the relationship between sleep deprivation and Alzheimer's Disease
- Sleep habits of elite athletes: http://www.livestrong.com/slideshow/1012209-winning-sleeping-habits-7-pro-athletes/#slide=1
Navy Times articles:
- New Article Carrier sailors to get more rest under new policy
- Sleep for the Night Shift (pdf)
- A Better Watchbill: Why isn't every ship using it? (pdf)
- Stavridis, et al., "You have to close your eyes to see the military's powerful new weapon"
National Public Radio:
- Submariner Sleep Patterns
- Van Winkle article on Insomnia in the Military: https://www.inverse.com/article/7492-how-post-traumatic-sleep-disorders-became-a-nightmare-for-american-veterans
Historical references to circadian-based watchbills and fatigue avoidance
If it was good enough for the Romans...
In Rules for Encamping an Army from the “De Re Militari” or The Military Institutions of the Romans by Flavius Vegetius Renatus written in 390 A.D. and translated in 1767 by Lieutenant John Clarke:
“Then the legions and auxiliaries, cavalry and infantry, have the ground distributed to them to pitch their tents according to the rank of the several corps. Four foot-soldiers of each century and four troopers of each troop are on guard every night. As it seemed impossible for a sentinel to remain a whole night on his post, the watches were divided by the hourglass into four parts, that each man might stand only three hours. All guards are mounted by the sound of trumpet and relieved by the sound of cornet. The tribunes choose proper and trusty men to visit the different posts and report to them whatever they find amiss. This is now a military office and the persons appointed to it are called officers of the rounds.”
And consider these quotes from Napoleon Bonaparte:
"You must not needlessly fatigue the troops."
"The first virtue in a soldier is endurance of fatigue; courage is only the second virtue."