OR Department Faculty Publications
Books & Chapters
David L. Alderson, Gerald G. Brown, and Matthew Carlyle
This paper received Society for Risk Analysis Award for Best Paper of 2015 in Risk Analysis.
We propose a definition of infrastructure resilience that is tied to the operation (or function) of an infrastructure as a system of interacting components and that can be objectively evaluated using quantitative models. Specifically, for any particular system, we use quantitative models of system operation to represent the decisions of an infrastructure operator who guides the behavior of the system as a whole, even in the presence of disruptions. Modeling infrastructure operation in this way makes it possible to systematically evaluate the consequences associated with the loss of infrastructure components, and leads to a precise notion of “operational resilience” that facilitates model verification, validation, and reproducible results. Using a simple example of a notional infrastructure, we demonstrate how to use these models for (1) assessing the operational resilience of an infrastructure system, (2) identifying critical vulnerabilities that threaten its continued function, and (3) advising policymakers on investments to improve resilience.
J.O. Royset and R. J-B Wets
Optimality functions pioneered by E. Polak characterize stationary points, quantify the degree with which a point fails to be stationary, and play central roles in algorithm development. For optimization problems requiring approximations, optimality functions can be used to ensure consistency in approximations, with the consequence that optimal and stationary points of the approximate problems indeed are approximately optimal and stationary for an original problem. In this paper, we review the framework and illustrate its application to nonlinear programming and other areas. Moreover, we introduce lopsided convergence of bifunctions on metric spaces and show that this notion of convergence is instrumental in establishing consistency of approximations. Lopsided convergence also leads to further characterizations of stationary points under perturbations and approximations.
Panagiotis Matsangas, Nita L. Shattuck, and Michael E. McCauley
Environmental motion can affect shipboard sleep of crewmembers. Slamming and similar harsh motion may interfere with sleep, whereas mild motion and sopite syndrome may enhance sleep. If sleep needs vary by sea condition, this factor should be considered when assessing human performance at sea. The goal of this study was to assess sleep duration in different sea conditions.
Samuel E. Buttrey & Lyn R. Whitaker
This paper describes treeClust, an R package that produces dissimilarities useful for clustering. These dissimilarities arise from a set of classification or regression trees, one with each variable in the data acting in turn as a the response, and all others as predictors. This use of trees produces dissimilarities that are insensitive to scaling, benefit from automatic variable selection, and appear to perform well. The software allows a number of options to be set, affecting the set of objects returned in the call; the user can also specify a clustering algorithm and, optionally, return only the clustering vector. The package can also generate a numeric data set whose inter-point distances relate to the treeClust ones; such a numeric data set can be much smaller than the vector of inter-point dissimilarities, a useful feature in big data sets.