NSA Professor Anne Marie Baylouny and former NSA student LT Steve Klingseis have written a joint article titled, “Water Thieves or Political Catalysts? Syrian Refugees in Jordan and Lebanon,” which has just been published in the spring 2018 edition of the Middle East Policy. In the article, they discuss the water crisis in Lebanon and Jordan, which has been exacerbated by the influx of a huge number of Syrian refugees. The authors caution about the consequences of inaction regarding the water crisis, noting “water is not a luxury, and its lack holds long-term implications for health, sanitation, development and social movements.”
LT Klingseis has graduated from Naval Postgraduate School and will soon be attending Department Head School at the Surface Warfare Officers School in Newport, RI. Previously, he taught navigation, seamanship, and ship handling.
Click here to read the article.
The journal Ethics and International Affairs has just published a new article by NSA Professor Anne Clunan, titled “Russia and the Liberal World Order.” In the article, Professor Clunan discusses three forms of liberalism and Russian views on the “liberal world order.” She concludes that while Russian leaders are obviously not satisfied with the United States and the European Union, they are not inherently opposed to a liberal world order.
Click here to read the article.
The journal Comparative Strategy has recently published an article by NSA Professor Thomas-Durell Young, titled “Can NATO's ‘New’ Allies and Key Partners Exercise National-level Command in Crisis and War?” In the article, Professor Young posits that most post-communist members of NATO and key partners continue using communist concepts of command, such as hyper-centralizing decision making, collective decision making, and unclear chains of command and alignment of authority with responsibility, at the national level of governance. He also argues that these weaknesses could have the unexpected consequence of compromising “new” allies’ national sovereignty in crisis and war.
Click here to read the article.
The journal International Security has published a new article by NSA Professor Christopher Darnton, titled “Archives and Inference: Documentary Evidence in Case Study Research and the Debate over U.S. Entry into World War II.” In the article, Professor Darnton critiques the use and misuse of primary sources in international relations research, including arguments over whether public opinion constrains presidents with respect to the use of force. In the article, he offers several recommendations for how to execute more rigorous and persuasive case studies. He argues that instead of cherry-picking evidence to support an argument, scholars and students need to think strategically about the selection and deployment of primary sources.
For more information, click here.
The journal Small Wars & Insurgencies recently published an article by NSA Professor Tom Johnson titled “The illusion of Afghanistan's Electoral Representative Democracy: The Cases of Afghan Presidential and National Legislative Elections.” In the article, Professor Johnson examines structural problems including fraud, ethno-linguistic block voting, and the single non-transferable vote, which have all impacted the development of Afghan democratic elections. He argues that the challenge of the current Afghan government and future elections is to the Afghan people while not repeating the electoral mistakes of the past—a daunting task, especially given “the context of massive government corruption and a continuing, significant Taliban insurgency wrapped in the narrative of jihad.”
To read the article, click here.
NSA student graduate, MAJ William D. Swenson (US Army), is a recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor, which is the highest and most prestigious military decoration awarded for exceptional valor. MAJ Swenson made it a point that he did not want this news out while he was attending NPS, so the department waited until his graduation ceremony to recognize him for earning such a distinction as a captain. Click here for more information.
Colonel Michael Fenzel (US Army), who defended his Ph.D. dissertation in the NSA Department in 2013 ("No Retreat: the Failure of Soviet Decision-making in the Afghan War, 1979-1989"), has been promoted to brigadier general (BG). His next assignment will be in Afghanistan. Based on the dissertation, his book, No Miracles: The Failure of Soviet Decision-Making in the Afghan War is being published by Stanford University Press (November 2017).
In his book, BG Fenzel explores why and how that although the Soviet Union's senior leaders had become aware that their strategy in Afghanistan was unraveling, their operational and tactical methods were not working, and the sacrifices they were demanding from the Soviet people and military were unlikely to produce the forecasted results, operations in Afghanistan persisted for four more years. For more information about his book, click here.
In a chapter titled “Building a Dam for China in the Three Gorges Region, 1919–1971” in the forthcoming book Water, Technology and the Nation-State (Routledge, June 2018), NSA Professor Covell Meyskens highlights three notable features of Chinese efforts to build the Three Gorges Dam between the 1910s and 1970s. First, Chinese leaders exhibited the late developer’s penchant for state-led industrialization. Second, Chinese elites conceived of the Three Gorges Dam as the centerpiece of a program to technologically re-engineer the Yangzi River to boost national power and overcome China’s position of international weakness. Lastly, due to insufficient domestic capital, elites formed partnerships with more technologically advanced countries. These three trends resulted in two technological styles. The dominant technological style was technocratic. Only during the Great Leap Forward did a Maoist technological style gain prominence, putting more stock in mass mobilization and national voluntarism than technical expertise and industrial equipment.
To read more, click here.
Given the ongoing interest in organized crime within the Republic of Turkey, NSA Professor Ryan Gingeras offers analysis of major controversies affecting the Turkish state today. Grounded in deeper historical research, he contributes to the broader conversation about the mechanics of Turkish politics and society today, and the current trajectory of the country's main civil and political institutions. His contributions are featured in three new publications: “An Empire Redeemed: Tracing the Ottoman State’s Path towards Collapse” in The Oxford Handbook of the Ends of Empire; a co-authored report titled Power and Corruption in Erdogan’s Turkey: Context and Consequences for the Bipartisan Policy Center; and an “Is Turkey Turning into A Mafia State? The Case of Reza Zarrab and the Rise of Organized Crime” in Foreign Affairs.
Click here for more about “An Empire Redeemed.”
Click here for more about Power and Corruption in Erdogan’s Turkey.
Click here for more about “Is Turkey Turning into A Mafia State?”
The NSA department if proud to report that Professor Afshon Ostovar, a new hire and resident expert on Iran, has been recognized with a distinguished book award. His book, Vanguard of the Imam: Politics, Religion, and Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, has received the Bronze Medal in the Washington Institute’s 2017 Book Prize competition. The judges hailed the book as “the first comprehensive history of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) in English.” They went on to say, Professor Ostovar “masterfully marshals information from a wide variety of sources, including Iranian publications. He traces how the IRGC evolved from a rag-tag militia established in the midst of revolutionary upheaval into a formidable military.” Congratulations to Professor Ostovar on this professional feat and for elevating NPS’s academic standing with his meritorious scholarship.
For more on the competition and prize, click here.
For more about Professor Ostovar's book, click here.
Professor Mohammed Hafez, Chairman of the Department of National Security Affairs, published his research on rebel-on-rebel fratricide and its consequences for jihadi movements seeking to win their civil wars. He finds that jihadis that deploy fratricidal violence against civilians and rival rebel groups often end up failing to achieve their objectives because they alienate their supporters, drive away external sponsors, and fragment the ranks of their movement. Professor Hafez uses the cases of Algeria, Iraq, and Syria to illustrate how puritanical ideologies facilitate fratricide and preclude learning from past mistakes, resulting in defeat after defeat. He also discusses the implications for fighting future iterations of the Islamic State.
To read Professor Hafez's article in the CTC Sentinel, click here.
To read Professor Hafez's article in Terrorism and Poltical Violence, click here.
NSA Professor Jessica Piombo has been awarded one of the Minerva Initiative University Grants. It is part of the full grant program that OSD Minerva runs, rather than the defense institution program, which means that this is an award for three years for a project that she will conduct with Professor Pierre Englebert from Pomona College. The two will split the $780k grant between their two institutions. The basic topic asks why states respond to international intervention in different ways. More specifically, why do some states cooperate with international statebuilding interventions as passive recipients of external action, while others are much more controlling of the processes of international intervention, and yet others seem to go along with the goals and programs of international actors, yet undermine the implementation of programs.
The project will look at interventions in fragile and post-conflict states are often designed and implemented by outside actors as technocratic responses to situations of political disorder, state weakness, and civil unrest. The interventions, often built on international best practices, rarely unfold in the ways initially conceived by their designers, however, because in reality, these are highly political processes. The awardees propose to investigate how the ways that local actors and institutional environments engage with these projects during implementation significantly changes their nature, by proposing two related questions. First, how do local political dynamics explain variations in the degree and type of engagement of African regimes with outside actors, particularly in conflict-affected countries where international and local agents share sovereignty? Second, how do these variations condition the course of the intervention and the actions of the interveners?
For a fuller description of the project, click here.
The NSA Department extends a warm welcome to its newest faculty member and alumnus, Colonel Uwe Hartmann, PhD from Germany. Prior to coming to back to the Naval Postgraduate School, COL Hartmann as the branch head of Principles Military Doctrine and Command and Control of Land Forces at Army Command in Strausberg, Germany and more recently a course member at the NATO Defense College in Rome, Italy. In 2001, he received his Master’s Degree in National Security Affairs (an NSA program) from NPS. COL Hartmann’s teaching interests include NATO, the European Union, strategic thinking and leadership. He has published extensively over the years and has served as the co-editor of Yearbook on the Leadership Philosophy of the German Armed Forces (Jahrbuch Innere Fuehrung).
For more on COL Hartmann, click here.
NSA Professor Scott Jasper recently had an article published in The Diplomat and another in The National Interest, both on cyber defense. In the article in The Diplomat, titled “Russia Sanctions Are Insufficient: Use Active Cyber Defense,” he advocates the use of active cyber defense as an answer to cyber threats, such as those emanating from Russia or North Korea. A strategy of active cyber defense combines internal systemic resilience to halt cyber attack progress with external disruption capacities to thwart a malicious actors’ objectives. Jasper argues active cyber defense will be more effective than economic sanctions or diplomatic expulsions.
Recently, Professor Jasper spoke at CyCon US in Washington, DC as part of a panel on cyber deterrence; he spoke on about the insufficiency of current strategies. He offered in response the use of automated cyber defenses that halt attacks before damage is inflicted. Based on defeating global ransomware attacks, his arguments are presented in an online article in The National Interest titled “Russia and Ransomware: Stop the Act, Not the Actor.”
To read the article in The Diplomat, click here.
To read the article in The National Interest, click here.
NSA Professor S. Paul Kapur has recently had two new works published. The first is an article in a recent issue of Foreign Policy, co-authored with Sumit Ganguly. In the article, titled “Is India Starting to Flex Its Military Muscles,” the authors discuss the summer 2017 deployment of India’s troops to the Doklam plateau near the Bhutan-China-India border to prevent China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) from constructing a road. The standoff lasted two months. The authors argue this is not another insignificant Sino-Indian spat along the border region. Instead, they believe the incident could signal changes in India’s strategic character and investigate what may have prompted India to be confrontational.
The second piece is a chapter in The SAGE Encyclopedia of Political Behavior (edited by Dr. Fathali M. Moghaddam, Georgetown) titled “Stability-Instability Paradox.” In the chapter, Professor Kapur explores the logic of the stability-instability paradox and its central role in nuclear deterrence. He also discusses policy challenges created by the stability-instability paradox with regard to nuclear-armed states. Finally, he explains why the stability-instability paradox will remain an inescapable problem for nuclear states in the future.
To read “Is India Starting to Flex,” click here.
To read the “Stability-Instability Paradox,” click here.
NSA Professor Anne Marie Baylouny and U.S. Air Force Lt Col. Creighton Mullins, a former NSA student, have co-written an article just published in Studies in Conflict & Terrorism titled “Cash is King: Financial Sponsorship and Changing Priorities in the Syrian Civil War.” In the article, the authors consider what happens when foreign patrons provide lavish amounts of cash to rebels without mechanisms of accountability, and they analyze analyzes three major sources of funding and their micro-level effects on insurgent-groups in the Syrian civil war. Through this sponsorship, funders promote Islamist ideologies and regional issues over local issues.
A 2015 graduate, Mullins received the prestigious Ellis Island Medal of Honor by the National Ethnic Coalition of Organizations (NECO) in May 2015. This isn’t the first co-authored article for Mullins. He also co-authored an article with the NSA Professor Mohammed Hafez in 2015, “The Radicalization Puzzle,” which explores radicalization of individuals in Western societies, also published in Studies in Conflict & Terrorism (read here).
To read “Cash is King,” click here.
The National Emergency Management Association (NEMA) has presented Glen Woodbury, Director of the Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS) the 2017 Lacy E. Suiter Distinguished Service Award. This award is given to individuals who have made cumulative outstanding contributions to the field of emergency management. An Army veteran, CHDS graduate, past president of NEMA, and former director of Emergency Management Division for Washington state, Glen Woodbury has been in the field of emergency management for more than 25 year. CHDS, where Woodbury is not only the director but also teaches, has a number programs focused on assisting homeland security leaders develop policies, strategies, programs, and organizational elements needed to defeat terrorism and to prepare for and respond to natural disasters and public safety threats across the United States.
To read more, click here.
NSA Professor Mikhail “Misha” Tsypkin was honored by NPS recently for his 30 years of service. Professor Tsypkin, who is the Academic Associate for three NSA curricula (249, 684, and 688), has been teaching at NPS since 1987. Professor Mohammed Hafez, the Chair of the NSA Department, said, “Professor Tsypkin has been a great mentor to our students over the decades, seeing some develop into admirals and military leaders here at home and abroad.” Professor Tsypkin is an expert on Russia, an area of growing importance today, and the NSA Department thanks him for his service to the department, NPS, and our students.
For information on the award ceremony, click here.
Graduating students from the National Security Affairs Department gather with several of their professors for a group portrait on the steps of Herrmann Hall, June 16. A total of 45 students received their Master of Arts in Security Studies, including officers from the U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, Army, and Air Force and from Germany, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Pakistan, Trinidad and Tobago, Kenya, Mexico, and Uganda. The NSA Department congratulates its most recent group of graduates and wishes them all the best.
NSA’s Dr. Thomas-Durell Young has published an article on the Sociology of Command in Central and Eastern Europe. From the abstract, Dr. Young explores the elements of the Communist concept of command continue to ramify throughout Central and Eastern European armed forces. These elements inhibit the orderly delegation of command, the consistent creation of defense capabilities, and the professional development of commanders and managers; they also impede these armed services from adopting the concepts of authority, accountability, and responsibility—concepts taken for granted in Western defense institutions.
To read the article, please click here.
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